Isolates cultivation 4Pure cultures were obtained by transferring aseptically pieces of fruit bodies on the Modified Melin Norkrans MNM agar medium Marx et al. Data analysis 7After restriction with endonucleases, the amplification products were scored as 1 presence or 0 absence of a restriction site and used for determining genetic distances between the isolates Nei et al. These distances were used to cluster the isolates by the unweighted pair group method with averages UPGMA method using the Statistica program version 4. In general, no difference was detected between species from the same genus. All the species showed polymorphic patterns, except two species of Russula R.
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Delimitations of the genera currently included in the family were investigated. Relationships of austral temperate taxa occurring in New Zealand, Australia and southern South America were studied in detail. Finally, we studied the evolution of the symbiotic associations found in the family which proved to be monophyletic. Sticta, with the exception of S. The status of Lobariella, and The status of Lobariella, and Lobarina as independent genera was not supported.
Relationships of southern temperate Sticta species indicate a common Gondwanan ancestor. In rest of the family, species from the austral temperate zone group together with more widespread species. The ancestor of the Lobariaceae was associated with cyanobacteria. Green algal photobionts have subsequently been acquired repeatedly, but also repeatedly lost within the family. The acquisition of green algae has not resulted in a complete loss of the cyanobacterial photobiont. The cyanobacterial symbioses therefore seem to be more stable than those with green algae.
Parasite, , 16, 43—50 Mémoire Litomosa chiropterorum Ortlepp, Nematoda: Filarioidea from a South African miniopterid: redescription, Wolbachia screening and phylogenetic relationships with Litomosoides Litomosa chiropterorum ortlepp, Nematoda: Filarioidea parasite de minioptère sud-africain : redescription, recherche de Wolbachia et relations phylétiques avec Litomosoides K. Junker1, M. Barbuto2, M. Casiraghi2, C. Martin3, S.
CHAPITRE 2 : L’évolution des organismes vivants
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